Ukiyo-e , or "pictures of the floating world," is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints or " woodcuts " and paintings produced between the 17th and 20th centuries, featuring motifs of landscapes, theater, and courtesan districts. It is the main artistic genre of Japanese woodblock printing. Japanese printmaking, especially from the Edo period , exerted enormous influence on French painting over the 19th century. It wasn't until the Joseon dynasty that Confucian themes began to take root in Korean paintings, used in harmony with indigenous aspects.
The history of Korean painting has been characterized by the use monochromatic works of black brushwork, often on mulberry paper or silk. This style is evident in "Min-Hwa", or colorful folk art, tomb paintings, and ritual and festival arts, both of which incorporated an extensive use of colour.
Elephant and cub out of the stable of the Moghul ruler, 17th century. A man with children, Pahari painting style, Rama and Sita in the Forest , Pahari painting style, Indian paintings historically revolved around the religious deities and kings. Indian art is a collective term for several different schools of art that existed in the Indian subcontinent.
The paintings varied from large frescoes of Ajanta to the intricate Mughal miniature paintings to the metal embellished works from the Tanjore school.
The paintings from the Gandhar — Taxila are influenced by the Persian works in the west. The eastern style of painting was mostly developed around the Nalanda school of art. The works are mostly inspired by various scenes from Indian mythology. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of prehistoric times, the petroglyphs as found in places like the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka , and some of them are older than BC.
Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ajanta , Maharashtra state present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals. Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India are rock-cut cave monuments dating back to the 2nd century BCE and containing paintings and sculpture considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art  and universal pictorial art.
Madhubani painting is a style of Indian painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar state, India. The origins of Madhubani painting are shrouded in antiquity. Rajput painting , a style of Indian painting , evolved and flourished, during the 18th century, in the royal courts of Rajputana , India.
Each Rajput kingdom evolved a distinct style, but with certain common features. Rajput paintings depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna's life, beautiful landscapes, and humans. Miniatures were the preferred medium of Rajput painting, but several manuscripts also contain Rajput paintings, and paintings were even done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts, havelies, particularly, the havelis of Shekhawait.
The colors extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones, gold and silver were used. The preparation of desired colors was a lengthy process, sometimes taking weeks.
Brushes used were very fine. Tanjore painting is an important form of classical South Indian painting native to the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. The art form dates back to the early 9th century, a period dominated by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature. These paintings are known for their elegance, rich colors, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.
Learn more about the history of painting with Grolier Online and Scholastic ART. although very little Greek painting has survived the effects of time and wars. The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all .. In general the proper way of painting a landscape is to see the small from the viewpoint of the large just as one looks at artificial mountains in.
In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India. The process of making a Tanjore painting involves many stages. The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base.
The base consists of a cloth pasted over a wooden base. Then chalk powder or zinc oxide is mixed with water-soluble adhesive and applied on the base. To make the base smoother, a mild abrasive is sometimes used. After the drawing is made, decoration of the jewellery and the apparels in the image is done with semi-precious stones. Laces or threads are also used to decorate the jewellery. On top of this, the gold foils are pasted. Finally, dyes are used to add colors to the figures in the paintings. During British rule in India, the crown found that Madras had some of the most talented and intellectual artistic minds in the world.
As the British had also established a huge settlement in and around Madras, Georgetown was chosen to establish an institute that would cater to the artistic expectations of the royal family in London. This has come to be known as the Madras School. At first traditional artists were employed to produce exquisite varieties of furniture, metal work, and curios and their work was sent to the royal palaces of the Queen. Unlike the Bengal School where 'copying' is the norm of teaching, the Madras School flourishes on 'creating' new styles, arguments and trends. The Bengal school of art was an influential style of art that flourished in India during the British Raj in the early 20th century.
It was associated with Indian nationalism, but was also promoted and supported by many British arts administrators.
The Bengal School arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the academic art styles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Raja Ravi Varma and in British art schools. Following the widespread influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havel attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures.
This caused immense controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move. Havel was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore , a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havel believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West.
Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata Mother India , depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations. Tagore later attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art. The Bengal School's influence in India declined with the spread of modernist ideas in the s. In the post-independence period, Indian artists showed more adaptability as they borrowed freely from european styles and amalgamated them freely with the Indian motifs to new forms of art.
While artists like Francis Newton Souza and Tyeb Mehta were more western in their approach, there were others like Ganesh Pyne and Maqbool Fida Husain who developed thoroughly indigenous styles of work. Today after the process of liberalization of market in India, the artists are experiencing more exposure to the international art-scene which is helping them in emerging with newer forms of art which were hitherto not seen in India.
Jitish Kallat had shot to fame in the late s with his paintings which were both modern and beyond the scope of generic definition. However, while artists in India in the new century are trying out new styles, themes and metaphors, it would not have been possible to get such quick recognition without the aid of the business houses which are now entering the art field like they had never before. Amrita Sher-Gil was an Indian painter, sometimes known as India's Frida Kahlo ,  and today considered an important woman painter of 20th-century India, whose legacy stands at par with that of the Masters of Bengal Renaissance ;   she is also the 'most expensive' woman painter of India.
Today, she is amongst Nine Masters , whose work was declared as art treasures by The Archaeological Survey of India , in and ,  and over of her paintings are now displayed at National Gallery of Modern Art , New Delhi. During the colonial era, Western influences started to make an impact on Indian art.
Some artists developed a style that used Western ideas of composition, perspective and realism to illustrate Indian themes. Others, like Jamini Roy , consciously drew inspiration from folk art. By the time of Independence in , several schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas. Galleries were established to showcase these artists. Modern Indian art typically shows the influence of Western styles, but is often inspired by Indian themes and images.
Major artists are beginning to gain international recognition, initially among the Indian diaspora, but also among non-Indian audiences. The Progressive Artists' Group , established shortly after India became independent in , was intended to establish new ways of expressing India in the post-colonial era. The founders were six eminent artists — K.