Mandarins and Merchants: After Tiananmen

People's Liberation Army at the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests
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Dingxin Zhao. Cantonese romanization systems are based on the accent of Canton and Hong Kong, and have helped define the concept of Standard Cantonese. The leader of the Christian travelers was Alopen. During their approach to the square on the night of June 3 the soldier and his unit were unwilling to fire on the crowds blocking their path. Robinson, Jancis February 8, Both Roman Catholics and Protestants founded numerous educational institutions in China from the primary to the university level. Cantonese language Cantonese culture Cantonese cuisine Cantonese people Cantonese opera.

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Margaret Dickeman. Sir Henry Arthur Blake. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. The Taiping Rebellion was a large-scale revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing government. It was conducted from to by an army and civil administration led by Hong Xiuquan. He established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace with the capital at Nanjing and attained control of significant parts of southern China, at its height ruling over about 30 million people.

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This account, based on personal observations during the two years after Tiananmen, follows a number of young Chinese as they struggle to invent individual. Mandarins and Merchants: After Tiananmen [Margaret Dickeman] on Amazon. swagboriterne.gq *FREE* shipping on eligible orders.

The theocratic and militaristic regime instituted several social reforms, including strict separation of the sexes, abolition of foot binding , land socialization, suppression of private trade, and the replacement of Confucianism , Buddhism and Chinese folk religion by a form of Christianity, holding that Hong Xiuquan was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The Taiping rebellion was eventually put down by the Qing army aided by French and British forces.

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With an estimated death toll of between 20 and 30 million due to warfare and resulting starvation, this civil war ranks among history's deadliest conflicts. Mao Zedong viewed the Taiping as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal system. Christians in China established clinics and hospitals , [33] and provided training for nurses. Both Roman Catholics and Protestants founded numerous educational institutions in China from the primary to the university level. Some of the most prominent Chinese universities began as religious-founded institutions.

Missionaries worked to abolish practices such as foot binding , [34] and the unjust treatment of maidservants, as well as launching charitable work and distributing food to the poor. They also opposed the opium trade [35] and brought treatment to many who were addicted. Some of the early leaders of the Chinese Republic , such as Sun Yat-sen were converts to Christianity and were influenced by its teachings.

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By the early s the Taiping movement was almost extinct, Protestant missions at the time were confined to five coastal cities. By the end of the century, however, the picture had vastly changed. Scores of new missionary societies had been organized, and several thousand missionaries were working in all parts of China.

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This transformation can be traced to the Unequal Treaties which forced the Chinese government to admit Western missionaries into the interior of the country, the excitement caused by the awakening of faith in Britain and the example of J. Hudson Taylor — Taylor Plymouth Brethren arrived in China in Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette wrote that Hudson Taylor was "one of the greatest missionaries of all time, and The China Inland Mission was the largest mission agency in China and it is estimated that Taylor was responsible for more people being converted to Christianity than at any other time since Paul the Apostle brought Christian teaching to Europe.

Out of the 8, Protestant missionaries that were at one time at work in China, of them were from the China Inland Mission. In imperial-times Chinese social and religious culture there were charitable organizations for virtually every social service: burial of the dead, care of orphans, provision of food for the hungry. The wealthiest in every community—typically, the merchants—were expected to give food, medicine, clothing, and even cash to those in need. According to Caroline Reeves, a historian at Emmanuel College in Boston, that began to change with the arrival of American missionaries in the late 19th century.

One of the reasons they gave for being there was to help the poor Chinese. By when the China Inland Mission began, there were already thirty different Protestant groups at work in China, [37] however the diversity of denominations represented did not equate to more missionaries on the field. In the seven provinces in which Protestant missionaries had already been working, there were an estimated million people with only 91 workers, while there were eleven other provinces in inland China with a population estimated at million, for whom absolutely nothing had been attempted.

In addition to the publication and distribution of Christian literature and Bibles , the Protestant missionary movement in China furthered the dispersion of knowledge with other printed works of history and science. As the missionaries went to work among the Chinese, they established and developed schools and introduced medical techniques from the West. It concluded with repeated calls for their extermination by vigilantes and the government.

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The Boxer Uprising was in part a reaction against Christianity in China. Christianity was prevalent among bandits in Shandong. In , the Manchu Yuxian , a magistrate in the province, acquired the help of the Big Swords Society in fighting against bandits. The Big Swords practiced heterodox practices, however, they were not bandits and were not seen as bandits by Chinese authorities. The Big Swords relentlessly crushed the bandits, but the bandits converted to the Catholic Church, because it made them legally immune to prosecution under the protection of the foreigners. The Big Swords proceeded to attack the bandit Catholic churches and burn them.

More secret societies started emerging after this. In Pingyuan, the site of another insurrection and major religious disputes, the county magistrate noted that Chinese converts to Christianity were taking advantage of their bishop's power to file false lawsuits which, upon investigation, were found groundless.